Roulette is one of the oldest yet most popular casino games, and it was first created by Blaise Pascal in 17th century France. It’s little surprise, therefore, that roulette translates to ‘little wheel’ in English. Here we will take a look at where the game began, its predecessors and how it has evolved over the years into the multi-million-pound industry it is today.
From ancient civilizations…
Some believe that roulette started out as a different game in ancient China. The game involved arranging 37 animal figures into a magic square, with the numbers totaling 666. The game was discovered by Dominican monks who then brought the game over to Europe, where it was adapted slightly. Instead of a square board, a circle was used and an extra space for a zero was added. Rather strangely, the numbers on a modern roulette wheel also add up to 666.
Soldiers in ancient Rome did not have a fun life. There’s no doubt that morale would be low on the battlefield with comrades being wounded or worse. To combat this, games were introduced – and many of those included spinning items such as shields or chariot wheels. Similarly, games were played whilst the ancient Greeks were in battle.
One example of this, similar to roulette, involved soldiers drawing symbols on the inside of their shields, putting them face down and placing an arrow next to the shield. They would then spin the shield and bet on which symbol would stop on the arrow. …
to 17th century France…
Pascal was a French mathematician and physicist, so it’s no surprise he created his own version of the wheel. However, he wasn’t attempting to create a casino game, but instead, was looking to invent a perpetual motion machine. The roulette we play today was heavily influenced by two other games, popular around this time: ‘Roly Poly’ and ‘Even-Odd’.
Even-Odd was a game played with a wheel and a ball, but instead of numbers, the pockets were marked with ‘E’ or ‘O’ for ‘even’ or ‘odd’.
…to the rest of Europe and the USA…
It was courtesy of two Frenchmen that the game we play and love today only has the one zero on the wheel. Prior to that, there were two zeros: one red zero and a black double zero, which gave the house a bigger edge, should the player land a zero. Francois and Lois Blanc designed the wheel specifically for King Charles III of Monaco, who then built a casino and brought roulette to the masses.
Roulette was then introduced to the Americans by European settlers in the 19th century. The earliest version of the roulette wheel included 28 numbers, plus a zero, double zero and an eagle symbol. The eagle was an extra house edge. This version then gave way to the European wheel; however, the Americans weren’t happy with the house odds and adopted the double zero version. This particular wheel is still played throughout the USA, Canada, South America, and the Caribbean.
…and online, with live roulette
Prior to the turn of the millennium, if you wanted to play one zero roulette, you needed to go to a casino in Europe and if you wanted to play double-zero roulette, you needed to cross the Atlantic. With online roulette, that all changed and you can now play either version at any time. There are also many advantages to playing online, including concentration and strategy, as well as games being fully automated.
One thing originally missing from the online versions was the atmosphere of a real casino and that’s when live roulette was introduced. The first live games used a webcam to stream games that were taking place, with the winning number determined by a real roulette table, as opposed to an electronic random number generator.
2006 saw the first dedicated live studios introduced and these saw significant advantages, including better-placed cameras so players had an optimal view of the game. Further advances saw players able to interact with the dealer, HD quality, numerous camera angles, and slow-motion replays.
Who knows how the future of roulette lies, but one thing is for sure – it will remain accessible, fun but ultimately, a game of luck.
Posted by Retro Kimmer at 2:32 PM
If you were born in the mid to late 1970s and were a kid in the 1980s and 1990s, you may feel like having a constant deja vu when taking a look at a good part of today's available entertainment offering. Netflix's "Stranger Things" triggered a wave of TV series set in the 1980s, some better, others worse.
There is a brand new Star Trek series on the air, with two spinoffs upcoming. Another famous TV series from our childhood, "Lost in Space", is also back on the air - the planet is different, the robot is alien... but Dr. Smith is still evil (even if she's a woman in the revived Netflix production).
And Disney is preparing to release a set of new and improved features: The Lion King and Aladdin are getting revived this year. Retro, it seems, comes in waves... and now it's time for another wave to sweep across popular culture.
Metallica, one of the heavy metal bands that defined the 1980s and 1990s, is on tour again in 2019. A few years ago, Guns 'n' Roses reunited in 2015, then went on a two-year tour in their original format, with Axl Rose, Slash and Duff McKagan on the stage. All over Europe, the determinative acts of the 1980s as well as dance and Eurodance sensations from the 1990s are either back on the stage or are revived by tribute bands - think George Michael, Blondie, and David Bowie tribute bands, as well as dance, acts like Snap!, Corona, Magic Affair, and Fun Factory.
Plus, an entire genre was appropriated by a bunch of teenagers: K-pop, the genre that starts to gain a lot of following outside South Korea, is identical to what famous boy bands like the New Kids On The Block, Backstreet Boys, and Worlds Apart did more than two decades ago.
Some say that the 1990s were the third golden age of video games - the first one was the emergence of the arcades, the second was the invention of the gaming console, and the third was the time when some of the most memorable video game franchises and genres were born: shooters, point-and-click adventures, role-playing games, and their likes. The 1990s was a time when a myriad of great video games was born - and some of them are being revived as we speak.
The last few years have seen an entire series of Wolfenstein games hit the market - they were a unique combination of action and interactive storytelling. Other titles from the 1990s are also making a comeback: Homeworld, launched in 1999, has got a remastered version a few years ago, and System Shock, the archetype of the first-person cyberpunk role-playing genre, is being remade as we speak.
As humanity nears the moment of its greatest achievement so far - becoming a multi-planetary species - an ever-increasing number of people seem to find fascination with the past.
Nine of Pentacles card indicates that the querent has reached a stage in their lives where they are confident, independent and self-sufficient. Through hard work, this person is now ready to enjoy money, leisure, and material comfort.
The difficulties that were faced in the earlier journey of the pentacles appear to be over. The Nine of Pentacles conveys not only joy but also the feeling of security and freedom that material wealth can bring.
Looking back, the querent can now celebrate the difficulties, the struggles, and the hard work that lined her path. Her previous challenges gave her the wider perspective she needs to understand the spiritual value of her success. Knowing how difficult it was to get here, she intends to enjoy every single day that is given to her. Read More Here
People love music. Different kinds of music. Some people love to listen to music loudly. Some people like to go to concerts or music festivals. Some people listen to it only when they doing their workouts. Some of us sometimes even sing in the shower.
We begin our meeting with music from lullabies and take it all over life. We use it as ringtones and advertisements. That’s why to write an essay about music will be nice and comfortable.
Everyone knows the subject. But, like every essay, it should have a structure and should be interesting to every reader, so here are some tips about how to write an exciting essay about music.
Don’t Focus only on Your Favorite Music
As we wrote above everyone is fond of music even if he thinks he is not. But the majority of people have their own opinions and preferences. They can’t be right or wrong, and there is no better or worse styles or singers or music bands in general, but there is a universal assessment for each kind of music direction - it is quality.
There a lot of indicators of this estimator, but if your ear for music is good you can feel it without any explanations. Sure, our playlist consists of music types we like most of all. And we are aware of all new albums, singers and their concerts.
At the same time, we have no idea what is going on at opposite music directions. In spite of this for writing a good essay, you shouldn't focus only on your favorite music. You should write in general and if you give deep knowledge in one special music style you should make the reader think that you have the same deep information about another one.
You should show that you are candid in this question and you are acting as a writer, but now as a fan of rock music, for example. If you are not quite proficient in classic and modern classic music, you can hire someone to write your essay fast.
Balance Modern and Classical Music
Talking about general separation we can highlight two directions. Modern and classical music. Inside of each group, there are a lot of musical flows and you need to write almost a book to describe a little all of them. But the essay can’t fit all this information.
That why focus on these two directions for deep investigation and show the main differences in listeners, areas, and ways of presentation of them. It is also very interesting to shows how modern music became classical.
For example, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart a few centuries ago was a modern composer, but now he is a real classic. How and when did it happen? And what do you think about Queen? Who are they? Are they modern or already classical music?
Tell a Story But Keep It Short
Writing an essay is hard. Especially when you have such an interesting topic as music. Everyone has a lot of thought and knows incredible stories of rises and falls, unknown biographical facts of favorite singers, and can get a huge amount of information from the internet. So your really interesting stories can become too long for the essay. Try to stop yourself from the very beginning, because it is so hard to cut the text you put your soul and thoughts in.
Don’t Focus on Celebrities
One more mistake a lot of people do in music essays is they really focus on Celebrities. On their everyday life, their relationships, the food they eat or the car they drive. Because of Instagram and Twitter, the information comes online all the time.
And there are two things you should remember about it. The first one is the celebrities are really busy persons, so probably there is another person writes all those posts and share events. So it is a huge question - is it true what you see there?
The other thing is that love with music doesn’t mean love with a person who writes music or sings songs. In fact, it doesn’t matter how old your favorite singer is or how many persons are there in your favorite band. Just close your eyes and listen.
Use Online Grammar Checkers
And finally, don’t forget about grammar checkers. Every perfect text can be improved, but if you believe in one second that youth is not perfect - help yourself and use this opportunity to remove all possible mistakes.
Posted by Retro Kimmer at 12:10 PM
The Pink Moon rises on Friday, April 19. The full moon of April, called the Pink Moon, will occur on the morning of April 19 at 7:12 a.m. EDT.
April 19 Libra Full Moon - Completions, Resolutions, Setting Yourself Free
The second Libra Full Moon of 2019 is a time to complete a part of your soul's journey that allows you to move forward with greater confidence and connection to who you are now. The moon at 29 degrees Libra is asking for objective understanding around relationship dynamics or patterns that you are meant to see in yourself.
Venus in Pisces is the ruler of this Full Moon and she is asking you to be kind to your heart and loving around the lessons that are ending. A strong completion energy is within this lunar cycle. Let go consciously or get dragged.
The Full Pink Moon’s name comes from the abundance of moss phlox, a common little pink flower that typically begins to spread across the ground in early spring.
For observers on the U.S. East Coast, the Pink Moon will rise at about 8 p.m. the evening of April 19 and set at around 7 a.m. the next morning, according to the U.S. Naval Observatory. The moon will be in Libra. The sun will rise about an hour before moonset on April 20, so for about an hour, the nearly full moon and the sun will both appear in the sky.
Setting personal boundaries, as much as opening up, is a component of the principles of love or humanity. Hence, a protected space is being created in which we can develop freely. Not all influences we are surrounded by or encounter support our path. Sometimes we need encouragement to say “no”. This can help us to turn toward other influences and to dissolve our limitations. Behind this stands the “yes” toward life that we chose.
In other time zones:
WELLINGTON = Friday * 19 April 2019 * 11:12:11 pm (NZST)
SYDNEY = Friday * 19 April 2019 * 9:12:11 pm (AEST)
TOKYO = Friday * 19 April 2019 * 8:12:11 pm (JST)
BEIJING = Friday * 19 April 2019 * 7:12:11 pm (CST)
BANGKOK = Friday * 19 April 2019 * 6:12:11 pm (ICT)
DELHI = Friday * 19 April 2019 * 4:42:11 pm (IST)
DUBAI = Friday * 19 April 2019 * 3:12:11 pm (GST)
MOSCOW = Friday * 19 April 2019 * 2:12:11 pm (MSK)
BERLIN = Friday * 19 April 2019 * 1:12:11 pm (CEST)
LAGOS = Friday * 19 April 2019 * 12:12:11 pm (WAT)
LONDON = Friday * 19 April 2019 * 12:12:11 pm (BST)
RIO = Friday * 19 April 2019 * 8:12:11 am (BRT)
SANTIAGO = Friday * 19 April 2019 * 7:12:11 am (CLT)
NEW YORK = Friday * 19 April 2019 * 7:12:11 am (EDT)
MEXICO CITY = Friday * 19 April 2019 * 6:12:11 am (CDT)
CALGARY = Friday * 19 April 2019 * 5:12:11 am (MDT)
LOS ANGELES = Friday * 19 April 2019 * 4:12:11 am (PDT)
ANCHORAGE = Friday * 19 April 2019 * 3:12:11 am (AKDT)
HONOLULU = Friday * 19 April 2019 * 1:12:11 am (HAST)
You work hard on your music. You spend hours in the studio crafting each song and write lyrics that speak to your heart. It's only fair that all this effort goes somewhere. As one of the largest music streaming services in the world, Spotify is an excellent way to get recognized!
Spotify releases curated playlists that they then promote to its users. These cover every genre you can think of - and even more, you haven't! Learn how to beat the algorithms and get Spotify playlisting. It will give you leverage in the music industry whether you're a seasoned indie veteran or just starting out.
1. Sign Up for a "Spotify For Artists" Account
Make sure you already have some music on Spotify. With a "Spotify for Artists" account, you can claim those releases and then send them to Spotify for consideration. This type of account also gives you access to a lot of useful data. You can learn what songs are getting buzz, and which just get skipped over completely. Remember that Spotify uses that data, too. It helps them decide what songs are worthy of a feature.
2. Don't Get Overeager
Now that you have an account, it's time to get releasing, right? Not so fast! Spotify only allows you to send its editors one unreleased song at a time. That's why it's really important to decide what song you want to showcase.
3. Plan Carefully
You need to send Spotify your song at least a week in advance of its release. Start the promo now. If you have a social media presence (and by now you should), time posts daily to engage with your followers. This can include snippets of the song or other teasers. Followers often equal streams, which proves to Spotify that you have a big enough fanbase to land a spot on one of their playlists.
4. Make Playlists of Your Own
Don't wait for Spotify to take the bait. Build a playlist around your songs and promote those, too. Your listeners will get a feel for your sound and how it fits in with existing artists. This could lead to amazing collaboration opportunities as well! Don't be afraid to reach out if you like someone else's sound.
5. Network, Network, Network
Understand where the other big playlists are. A lot of music blogs run playlists of their own. What music sites do you like and read regularly? Chances are they've got a top-ten list or two just waiting to feature you. This is another great way to grow your audience and expand your platform.
6. Keep the Momentum Going
The work doesn't stop once you've landed on a Spotify playlist. Use that leverage to gain further traction within the industry. Spotify only pays its artists a fraction of a cent per play so you can't rely on that alone. Continue promotion after that playlist to encourage your fans to return and seek out your other songs.
Ultimately, though, it's about the music. Focus on creating something you're proud of and the likes, streams, and clicks will naturally follow. The bonus? Once you get noticed on Spotify, you could even get picked up by iTunes and additional music streaming platforms.
Posted by Retro Kimmer at 7:25 PM
At about 1:01 PM on March 18, 1925, trees began to snap north-northwest of Ellington, Missouri, and for the next three and a half hours more people would die, more schools would be destroyed, more students and farm owners would be killed, and more deaths would occur in a single city than from any other tornado in U.S. history.
It began when a small tornado touched down near Ellington, Missouri gained momentum over the course of the afternoon. In the three-and-a-half hours that followed, it ballooned to record widths and speed. At one point, observers calculated that it was a full mile wide, and it maintained an average speed of 62 miles per hour and a top speed of 73 miles per hour.
In 2013, a group of weather experts reevaluated the tornado in search of reasons why it was so huge and so destructive. Though they did find an unusual combination of a warm front, the tornado’s supercell and a favorable storm environment, they concluded that there wasn’t a single reason why the storm was so huge.
For people on the ground, the reasons didn’t matter. This tornado was the biggest one they’d ever seen, and people scrambled for shelter as it attacked town after town. From the start, the storm was a killer. Within minutes of materializing, it killed a farmer.
Then it headed to Annapolis, Missouri, a mining town. Tragically, the mountains in the town kept people from spotting it. Ninety percent of the town’s buildings were destroyed, four people were killed, and 1,000 people became homeless. Miraculously, a group of children who had huddled around their teacher’s desk after coming in from recess survived.
That was just the beginning. Soon the tornado had marched through Murphysboro, Illinois, where 243 people were killed, 623 injured and the city’s industries decimated. In nearby De Soto, 7-year-old Betty Moroni was in her classroom when the storm hit. Thirty-three students died at the school, including Moroni’s sister and 19 of the children in the classroom where she cowered during the storm. She lost three sisters and her father eventually died of head injuries he sustained during the tornado.
“After the tornado was over, nobody knew where anybody was,” she told The Southern Illinoisian in 2015. “You could be blown forever.” The tornado killed 33 schoolchildren, and 36 others, in De Soto. The death toll was even higher in West Frankfort, and only three buildings were left standing in nearby Parrish.
Then the tornado jumped state lines again. This time, its target was Indiana. Owensville was first. “The body of an unidentified infant was found in a creek, where it had been hurled by the fury,” wrote a local reporter. After laying waste to much of Princeton, the storm finally petered out.
Today, those spotters—and a weather prediction network that is unafraid of the word tornado—have contributed to a massive decline in tornado deaths. Massive tornadoes still strike the Midwest, but forecasters and residents hope they’ll never see the likes of the 1925 tornado again.
Scorsese - DeNiro - Pesci - Pacino
The Irishman (Netflix) is an upcoming American biographical crime film directed by Martin Scorsese and written by Steven Zaillian, based on the book I Heard You Paint Houses by Charles Brandt.
The film stars Robert De Niro as Frank Sheeran, a labor union leader and alleged hitman for the Bufalino crime family, and Al Pacino as Jimmy Hoffa. Joe Pesci, Harvey Keitel, Anna Paquin, Bobby Cannavale, and Ray Romano also star.
It is the ninth feature collaboration between De Niro and Scorsese and their first since 1995's Casino, the fourth film to star both De Niro and Pacino (following The Godfather Part II, Heat and Righteous Kill) and the first time Pacino has been directed by Scorsese. Read More
The new Irishman film is stirring up the Hoffa disappearance controversy once more. The Mob Museum has a great post about this on their blog about it.
Late in life, Mob hitman Frank “The Irishman” Sheeran, left, claimed to have killed labor leader Jimmy Hoffa in 1975. His version of the story is the basis for the book I Heard You Paint Houses, on which The Irishman is based. Hoffa photo courtesy of Las Vegas News Bureau. Full Story
Elliott Murphy’s latest novel TRAMPS takes place in the legendary 1980’s era New York City blues bar of the same name, where ex-punk musician Hoover has found his muse in the basement standing among the rat poison snorting cocaine with his best friend, bartender and drug dealer Jacky, while trying to make sense of a post-Elvis world, burying himself in the black shawl of the blues and looking for redemption in the rarified uptown elegance of the Frick Collection.
Home is a call girl with a heart of gold as the Mafia and nihilism close in from all sides. TRAMPS is the second in Elliott’s trilogy of rock novels, and his 3rd published novel.
Available on Amazon.com and www.elliottmurphy.com.
The eighth and final season of the fantasy drama television series Game of Thrones, produced by HBO, is scheduled to premiere on April 14, 2019.
Unlike the first six seasons that each had ten episodes and the seventh that had seven episodes, the eighth season only has six episodes. Like the previous season, it largely consists of original content not found in George R. R. Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire series and adapts material Martin revealed to the showrunners about the upcoming novels in the series, The Winds of Winter and A Dream of Spring. The season was adapted for television by David Benioff and D. B. Weiss.
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